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Acetic fermentation

A process of oxidation through which acetobacter converts the ethanol contained in fermented cooked must to acetic acid.


Microorganisms that convert ethanol to acetic acid


Row of barrels of different sizes and kinds of wood used for the production of Balsamic Vinegar, sorted by decreasing capacity


An upward hole in a barrel stave.


Coloring agent that can be added to PGI Balsamic Vinegar of Modena up to a maximum concentration of 2% in order to stabilize the product’s color.


A small linen cloth that covers the bunghole. It can be soaked in cooked must to obtain greater adherence.

Consortium for the Protection of Balsamic Vinegar of Modena

Organization founded in 1993 to preserve and promote the tradition of Balsamic Vinegar of Modena worldwide.

Cooked must

A liquid obtained by pressing grapes and boiling it for several hours until it turns into a dense and viscous compound which, after fermentation, acetification and aging in barrels, will eventually become balsamic vinegar.

Cork (Zaffo)

A wooden stopper that is placed on top of the cloth to close the barrel’s bunghole.


Annual activity, usually carried out in winter following the harvest and cooking of the must, through which the ideal level of Balsamic Vinegar is restored in all the barrels that make up a battery. The process consists of transferring a portion of the content of each barrel into the next barrel in line. All barrels are sorted by decreasing capacity

Mother Barrel (Badessa)

Barrel with a capacity ranging from 200 to 300 liters. It is the first barrel in which the cooked must is stored before it is moved into the battery of barrels.

PDO Balsamic Vinegar of Modena (Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena)

Seasoning made from cooked must, aged at least 12 years, only using grapes harvested within the province of Modena.

PGI Balsamic Vinegar of Modena

Seasoning made from cooked must and wine vinegar, aged at least 60 days, produced in the province of Modena.

Product Specifications

Production regulations set forth by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in 2009 to standardize what truly qualifies as «Balsamic Vinegar of Modena».


The act of cleaning barrels so as to remove Gallic acid from the wood.

Topping up

Addition of fermented cooked must to the mother barrel in order to restore the ideal level and start the process of drawing from one barrel to another.

Vinegar Farmhouse (Acetaia)

Room used for the production and aging of Balsamic Vinegar, which houses the batteries of wooden barrels.